COVID-19 pandemic: challenges ahead

Horacio Márquez-González, Servicio de Investigación Clínica, Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez, Ciudad de México, México
María G. Miranda-Novales, Unidad de Investigación en Análisis y Síntesis de la Evidencia, Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI, IMSS, Coordinación de Investigación, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Mexico City
Fortino Solórzano-Santos, Unidad de Investigación Medicina Basada en Evidencias, Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez, Ciudad de México. México
Miguel Klünder-Klünder, Subdirección de Gestión de la Investigación, Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez; Ciudad de México, México; Research Committee, Latin American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (LASPGHAN)
Juan Garduño-Espinoza, Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez y Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad de México, México
Jorge F. Méndez-Galván, Unidad de Investigación en Enfermedades Emergentes, Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez, Mexico City, Mexico

Since December 2019, health systems worldwide have faced the pandemic caused by the new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. The pandemic began in China and has spread throughout the world. This new coronavirus has a high transmission capacity and elevated lethality in people over 60 years old and in those with risk factors (obesity, diabetes, and systemic arterial hypertension); those characteristics have a different proportion in each country. At present, there is no specific, effective, and safe treatment to treat this virus. In this review, an analysis is made on the differences in epidemiological aspects of the disease and its presentation in pediatric patients; the poorly-based recommendation for using an empirical combination of antimalarials plus antimicrobials as antiviral treatment; the indication of intravenous steroids; and the possible influence of antihypertensive drugs on the course of the disease.

Keywords: Coronavirus 2019 disease. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Hydroxychloroquine. Azithromycin. Steroids. Angiotensin-converting enzyme-2.